Journal of Behavioral Public Administration <p><em>Journal of Behavioral Public Administration (JBPA)</em> is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary open access journal that focuses on behavioral and experimental research in public administration, broadly defined.&nbsp; JBPA encourages submissions of both basic scholarly and applied work conducted by academics or practitioners.</p> en-US <p>Manuscripts accepted for publicaction in JBPA are licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License</a> (CC-BY 4.0).&nbsp; It allows all uses of published manuscripts but requires attribution.</p> <p>The CC-BY license applies also to data, code and experimental material, except when it conflicts with a prior copyright.&nbsp; Common courtesy requires informing authors of new uses of their data, as well as acknowledging the source.</p> (Sebastian Jilke) (Ivan Lee) Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial: Continuity and change Sebastian Jilke Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Capturing the social relevance of government transparency and accountability using a behavioral lens <p>The link between transparency and accountability is an often discussed feature of good governance. Despite a great deal of attention, this relationship remains poorly understood. We argue that the adoption of a behavioral lens to evaluate the impact of transparency on accountability offers new opportunities to discover novel mechanisms that contribute to a more systematic understanding of when and why increasing government transparency enhances accountability. Shedding light on such mechanisms not only promises to improve existing theory, but to also render transparency more meaningful to the applied world. To make this argument, we highlight findings from four articles that form the basis of this symposium issue and discuss avenues for further research.</p> Gregory A. Porumbescu, Marcia Grimes, Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 03 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Additional intervention evidence on the relationship between public service motivation and ethical behavior <p>The nascent scholarship on public service motivation (PSM) and ethics exhibits mixed findings. This research article aims to describe and relate the current landscape of findings in this arena and to conduct an experiment that addresses design weaknesses that may explain some past null findings. Using a national sample of college-age respondents, we found that although self-reported PSM was positively correlated with ethical intentions, prosocial priming did not increase ethical intentions or behavior. We contextualize these findings in terms of previous studies, to inform our understanding of the efficacy of prosocial interventions. While our research suggests that self-reported PSM can predict, if not influence, ethical intention, we are unable to make conclusions about PSM’s effects on ethical behavior. Second, similar to past studies, we are not able to confirm specific mechanisms or interventions that might be used to increase ethical behavior or intentions.</p> Bradley E. Wright, Robert K. Christensen Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 04 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Personality traits in citizen expectations towards public services <p>Prior expectations are an important determining factor of how citizens evaluate politicians, government and public services. Typically, citizen expectations are divided into two main categories: predictive (“will”) expectations and normative (“should”) expectations. Theories of expectations say that predictive expectations are the sterile and indifferent prediction of future events, while normative expectations have a foundation in personal norms and values and express how the world should look according to the individual. Therefore, normative expectations should have antecedents more closely related to the individual’s personality than predictive expectations. However, these theoretical claims regarding the nature of the two different expectation types have not yet been tested empirically. Examining broad personality traits (Big Five) and The Maximizing Tendency trait, this exploratory study analyzes whether different personality antecedents explain the two types of expectations. Results show that the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness correlate positively, and extraversion negatively, with normative expectations. None of the traits correlate with predictive expectations. These results have implications for politicians’ efforts to shape citizens’ expectations, the citizen satisfaction literature, including work considering the expectation-disconfirmation model, and for further research on citizen expectations.</p> Morten Hjortskov Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Good for you or good for us? A field experiment on motivating citizen behavior change <p>In recent years, public sector agencies have increasingly been moving citizen services online to reduce administrative burdens for citizens and costs for governments. However, motivating citizens to make the transition to online services can be difficult. In this paper, I report on a randomized control trial with the Philadelphia Licenses and Inspections Department, testing a letter intervention with 11,579 rental license holders designed to encourage them to register for an account and renew online. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group that did not receive a letter or one of three treatment groups: 1) Standard (a simple reminder letter); 2) Personal Benefits (a letter with added language emphasizing the reduced burden for citizens from online renewal); and 3) City Benefits (a letter with added language emphasizing the benefits to the city from online renewal). I find a statistically significant, positive effect of letter receipt on both online registration and renewal; for example, the treatment letters increased the probability of renewing at least one license online from 12.3% in the control to 20.4% for the treatments pooled together. Furthermore, the City Benefits letter was the least effective treatment, though there were only small differences between treatments. Finally, the letters were generally more effective for subjects not residing in Philadelphia, suggesting that “nudge” campaigns to reduce administrative burden may be most effective for those facing the highest burdens from in-person public service delivery.</p> Syon P. Bhanot Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 29 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 What makes us tolerant of administrative burden? Race, representation, and identity <p>This article connects the literatures of administrative burden with those of representative bureaucracy and group identity. We derive two hypotheses from extant scholarship that, adapted to the case of administrative burden, propose the following: Citizens will be more tolerant of burden if their race identity overlaps with that of the bureaucrat administering the burden, and if potential benefits are targeted at people who are similar to them. Using a survey experiment based on a stratified sample of 465 U.S. residents, we find little support for the hypotheses. In fact, while Black participants barely responded to the treatments at all, we see that white participants were most tolerant of burden when served by a white bureaucrat in a program that benefits Black clients. The article calls for more research on the subject to build nuanced theory, including contextualizing propositions across identity groups and drawing on additional theoretical ideas.</p> Donavon Johnson , Alexander Kroll Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the mechanisms of administrative burden through a within-case study of Medicaid expansion implementation <p>The importance of the administrative burden problem in public programs has been apparent during the COVID-19 crisis in the United States as millions of newly unemployed people have had to wait for unemployment checks and public health insurance benefits due to paperwork requirements, agency staff shortages, and outdated information technology systems. The resulting burdens have extended financial hardship, caused the coronavirus to spread, and eroded citizen and agency morale. Administrative burdens have long been known to be costly, yet remain fixtures of public benefit programs across the world. To reduce them, we need to understand their mechanisms. Formal policy solutions per se will not reduce administrative burdens because they do not exist solely by design. This article contributes to behavioral public administration by providing a comprehensive, empirical-driven theoretical framework for understanding the complex processes through which supply-side administrative burdens are instituted, modified, and eliminated. Using a retrospective within-case study method that utilizes participant observation, documentation, and archival records, the article traces the process by which a state eliminated administrative burdens in the process of implementing an initially straightforward expansion of Medicaid eligibility, thereby creating a model for simplifying and streamlining enrollment that was incorporated into the Affordable Care Act.</p> Cheryl A. Camillo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The role of organized groups in administrative burdens of property taxation <p>There is a substantial body of literature regarding the effects of administrative burdens on the take-up of safety-net programs and the role of organized groups in this process. I investigate similar issues in the context of property tax assessment appeals. Disadvantaged groups spend well over the recommended 30% of their income on housing costs that include property tax, and, on top of that, assessors often overestimate lower-value properties. Appeals may provide some relief, but the process can be burdensome. Certain localities give condominium associations the right to file one joint appeal on behalf of all unit owners. I hypothesize that this rule reduces burdens for condominium units and causes them to appeal more frequently than houses, resulting in a distributive effect that depends on the local context. I present supporting evidence from two case studies in two locations: New York City, which allows joint appeals, and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh and surroundings), which does not. Thus, while administrative burdens can span diverse contexts, engaging a third party to assist potential beneficiaries consistently increases the take-up.</p> Iuliia Shybalkina Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Compared to whom? Social and historical reference points and performance appraisals by managers, students, and the general public <p>Experimental studies in public administration often focus on samples of non-practitioner groups. In these cases, it is unclear whether findings from non-practitioner groups are generalizable to public managers. Some literature suggests that bureaucrats are likely to hold biases similar to the rest of the population while other research argues that bureaucratic expertise and training allow practitioners to make decisions in more strategic or rational ways. This study works within the literature of performance information to test for differences in responses to the same experiment among college students, citizens, and public managers in the context of U.S. K-12 education. Some differences were detected across groups, though results reveal largely similar findings which have implications for when and how scholars might rely on non-practitioner samples to consider the attitudes and behaviors of bureaucrats or elected policymakers.</p> Amanda Rutherford, Thomas Rabovsky, Megan Darnley Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Public managers’ valuation of secondary policy objectives in public procurement – results from a discrete choice experiment <p>Governments are increasingly linking public procurement contracts to the attainment of secondary policy objectives. While not challenging the continuing dominance of price, this changes how service providers are selected. This study examines how public managers value environmental, innovative, and social goals against price in the public procurement of waste collection at the municipal level in Belgium. Using a discrete choice experiment, we study public managers’ valuation of secondary policy objectives. Additionally, to extend the external validity of our findings to different administrative structures, the same study has been replicated in three other countries (Norway, Germany, and Estonia). Although price remains crucial, we observe that public managers appear to be willing to pay more to increase the environmental, innovative, and social standards of public services. </p> Amandine Lerusse, Steven Van de Walle Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000